Biography: Robert Mangold was at the center of Minimalism as it emerged in the 1960s, receiving both his undergraduate and graduates degrees from Yale University. His classmates included Brice Marden, Nancy Graves, and Richard Serra, and he worked as a security guard at the Museum of Modern Art with Sol LeWitt and Robert Ryman. Mangold’s work was included in the Jewish Museum’s first exhibition of minimalist painting and sculpture—Primary Structures—in 1966. In 1967, he won a National Endowment for the Arts grant and in 1969, a Guggenheim Fellowship. Mangold’s first solo museum exhibition was at the Guggenheim Museum in 1971, and a major monograph of his work was published by Phaidon Press in 2000.